editing disabled


sexual assault and the justice gap-ebook swem acccesible
Demographics and RMA- men, younger people, and blacks have higher RMA
Connection between RMA and ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent)
Rape myth content about both perpetrator and victim
-creates scripts/scenarios where one is good or bad victim, turns validity of rape from question of very specific kind of consent at the time of sex to easily de-legitimatized
Implications of RMA and these scripts for prevention policy, attitudes towards particular cases of rape in the media,etc.A

Rape scales:
Burt's RMAS (1981)
Illinois RMAS(payne,loyway,fitzgerald 1999)
date rape DRMAS (truman,tokar,fisher,1996)
SRMS stanger rape myth (lee,pomeroy,yoo,2005)
RMS sanchez 1997
ASI ambivalent sexism inventory

To Print: http://www.springerlink.com/content/94x2447672t27681/





To find and print:

To check out: http://www.worldcat.org/title/calling-it-rape-rape-myth-acceptance-and-situational-characteristics-as-related-to-rape-acknowledgement/oclc/46004328

Ehrlich, Susan. “Communities of practice, gender, and the representation of sexual assault.” Language in society 28.2. (1999): 239-256.


Defining rape: Legal language at the intersection of symbolic, individual and institutional gendered violence
In recent news, the "No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act" has stirred controversy in its attempt to "re-define" rape by distinguishing "forcible rape" from other "non-forcible" rape. This proposal is worrying for feminists because it denies that rape of any kind is inherently forcible; there is no hierarchy of degrees of agency or consent among different kinds of rape. By asserting that not all rape is necessarily forcible, this new definition can be used to validate victim-blaming in rape court cases.
This issue relates to our class discussions about how gendered violence is realized at instiutional levels. Hegemonic masculine authoritative powers in government are able to define and control women's legal rights,experiences,and bodies. Symbolic linguistic violence in policy and law is a mechanism by which hegemonic masculine instiutions maintain their authority and take agency away from women. This institutional gendered violence works in a cycle as compliance with such symbolic and institutional violence reinforces the hegemonic masculine authoritative power and by doing so makes it difficult for individuals to challenge institutionally implemented gendered violence.
For my final paper. I wish to look at this and other examples of how contemporary and perhaps historic legal linguistic constructions of rape embody the interdependent relationship between individual,symbolic and institutional violence. What are examples of hegemonic masculine definitions of rape? How do these constructions of rape alter the meaning of rape from perpetrated forcible violence against a victim without consent to either blame the victim and/or mitigate,erase, or obscure the role of the perpetrator? What are the implications of patriarchal-biased definitions of rape for women's legal rights, bias in rape-related court cases, rape prevention programs, and attitudes about rape on an indiviudal level?

Preliminary bibliography:

Rape Stereotypes and Myths and their Psycho-legal Consequences Sexual Assault and the Justice Gap: A Question of Attitude. By Jennifer Temkin and Barbara Krahé, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2008. 258 pp


Williams, Linda S. “The Classic Rape: When Do Victims Report?” Social Problems 31.4 (1984): 459-67. Print.
Ruby, Jennie. “The Grammar of Male Violence.” Off Our Backs September/October (2004): 21-27.
Spender, Dale. Man-Made Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Print.
Swim, Janet K., Robyn Mallet, and Charles Stangor. (2004). “Understanding Subtle Sexism: Detection and Use of Sexist Language. Sex roles 51:3 (2004): 117-128.
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. London: Harper, 1995.
Mandaglio, Lia. “Speaking Across the Divide: A Functional Grammar Analysis of Feminist and Masculist Reproductive Rights Rhetoric in the United State.” Social Science Research Network. 12 January, 2010. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1535475>
R.M.J. “Victims don't "get raped": On blaming,passivity, and verbs.” Deeply Problematic: Feminism and Stuff. August 14, 2009. Web. February 9, 2010. <http://deeplyproblematic.blogspot.com/2009/08/ victims-dont-get-raped-on-blaming.html>
R.M.J. “Rape is not sex: Framing and language.” Deeply Problematic: Feminism and Stuff. August 12, 2009. Web. February 9, 2010. <http://deeplyproblematic.blogspot.com/2009/08/rape-is-not-sex-framing-and-language-in.html>
SAFER. “Campus Accountability Project: A Demand for College Sexual Assault Policy Reform.” SAFER – Students Active For Ending Rape. 2009. Web. 26 April 2010. <http://safercampus.org/campus-accountability-project>
Schlanger, Margo. “Teaching Torts: Gender Matters: Teaching a Reasonable Woman Standard in Personal Injury Law.” Saint Louis University Law Journal, 45.Summer (2001): 769 -778. Print.
Katz, Jackson. The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help. Naperville: Sourcebooks, 2006. Print.
Eckert, Penelope, and Sally McConnell-Ginnet. “Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-Based Practice.” Annual Review of Anthropology 21 (1992): 461-90. Print.
Ehrlich, Susan. “Communities of practice, gender, and the representation of sexual assault.” Language in society 28.2. (1999): 239-256.

Bohner, Gerd. “Writing About Rape: Use of the Passive Voice and Other Distancing Text Features as an Expression of Perceived Responsibility of the Victim.” British Journal of Social Psychology 40.4, (2001): 515-529. Print

Ahearn, Laura. “Language and Agency.” Annual review of anthropology 30 (2001): 109-37. Print.



"Women's equality is not just a moral issue, it's not just a humanitarian issue, it is not just a fairness issue," she said, "It is a security issue, it is a prosperity issue, and it is a peace issue."- Hillary Clinton